This book explores boys’ underachievement in literacy in early years education in Malta, using the dual lens of children’s rights and postcolonial theory. The author confronts issues in literacy attainment, early literacy learning and transitions to formal schooling with a case study from Malta. The book includes the voices of young boys who experience formal education from the age of five and adds a fresh perspective to existing literature in this area. Drawing on empirical research, the book traces the impact of foundational ideas of gender and early childhood, and makes practical recommendations to help young children experience socially just literacy education. This timely text will be highly relevant for researchers, educators and policymakers in the fields of literacy education, early childhood education, postcolonial education and children’s rights.